The CONNIVER reference manual

Drew McDermott and Gerald Jay Sussman. The Conniver Reference Manual. Technical report AIM-259a. MIT AI Laboratory. 1974.

I think Conniver may have a claim to being the most influential language you’ve never heard of. It’s a mostly forgotten Lisp variant that was a laboratory for some radically different language design ideas, and a precursor to a surprising set of features – many of which are still uncommon in the mainstream.

Conniver was intended to manage knowledge databases. This does make the report slightly hard to read in places, as there are a lot of explicit references to planning techniques wrapped-up with language mechanisms that don’t really depend on them.

Conniver is (to the best of my knowledge) the first appearance of generators in a programming language. It is therefore a distant precursor of all the lazy functional languages and libraries, as well as the generators found in Python. Implementing generators within a language (rather than as a built-in part of one) requires control structures that can be exited and re-entered, and therefore needs more flexible frames for controlling executing code rather than conventional stack frames that are unwound destructively on return.

The obvious (for Lisp, anyway) next step is to make these “hairy” control structures visible within the language, to allow them to be re-arranged in interesting ways. It does this by exposing the structure of frames, consisting of:

  • the bound variables
  • the state of the ongoing computation within the frame (e.g., the program counter)
  • a link (the ALINK) to the frame within which free variables should be looked-up
  • a link (the CLINK) to the frame to which control should return on exit from the frame

This structure in turn mandates the use of spaghetti stack (or parent pointer trees) where frames are implemented using lists that can be combined in richer ways than actual, literal stacks. Thee are the underpinnings of several different common structures:

  • generators and continuations
  • closures
  • non-local transfers, like CATCH and THROW in Common Lisp, and therefore probably encompassing the entire condition system
  • functions with access to extra state (as with object methods, but in this case used as callbacks for database updates)
  • symbolic debuggers (not mentioned in the text)
  • lexical versus dynamic variable scope (not mentioned in the text, and I think it’s a binary choice between one or the other depending on the ALINK, rather than accommodating lexical and “special” variable classes as Common Lisp does)

So these features are constructed in Conniver from more basic mechanisms rather than being provided built-in. I’m fascinated by what other structures one might build when every frame has two independent super-frames (one for variable lookup,one for control return) instead of one, and both can be modified independently. This is radically different to most languages in which frames are hidden and their manipulation reserved for the compiler and run-time: it’s a set of ideas that re-surface at the object level in metaobject protocols.

(Part of the series An annotated Lisp bibliography.)